Tomatos That I Grow

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Gardeners Delght seedlngs sown on the 23-02-18 seed bought from Wilkos

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Image of the aluminium greenhouse where I grow my tomato’s the greenhouse is very old and I have been using it for about fifteen years

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I was preparing the tomato’s for the coming season and you can see I have got about half of the greenhouse planted out the seedling are in the background amongst the chaos I have created

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The tomato’s in this image have been planted in their grow pots for about two weeks

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Notice the grape vine growing on the right hand side

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Close up of the tomato’s which have been planted in their grow pots for about two weeks

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The tomato variety shown in this image are my favourite Gardeners Delight which to grow very well and are not suspetable to many growing problems or diseases

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The tomatos look happy enough and seem to be growing well in their grow pots I always use grow bags as the base component for gowing them in

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Notice the grape vine which is a strawbery tasting type in the back ground its looking really healthy and the main thing it tastes great and there are no pips

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It normally takes about a week to get all the tomato plants into their grow pots and the other containers I use

The Blue Bell Hendon

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Notice the new houses on the right of the Blue Bell these where built in the 1970s and are privately owned

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The roof of The Blue Bell was once a beautiful tiled structure but over many years of neglect sadly it is now nothing like it was in its hey day notice the attic window and the chimney pots and the TV mast

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The Blue Bell was situated in Zion Street Hendon Sunderland which was a street in the Jewish quarter of Hendon

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The Blue Bell looks very sad in its derelict condition and was pulled down shortly after I took these images

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My white Berlingo van can be seen on the left of the image

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Holy Trinity church can be seen in the background the church was opened in 1719 for the growing population of Sunderland as the ship building industry grew

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The attic window of The Blue Bell I wonder what history it can tell us about the pub

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Close up of the Blue Bells attic window now sadly looking very delapitdated after the pub closed shortly after the Blue Bell was pulled down and made into a car park

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Notice the broken windows the drain pipes and the Sky antenna on the wall

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Close up of the broken windows and the drain pipes and the size of the bricks these were the old style a lot smaller than the ones used for building these days

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This was the main door of The Blue Bell the windows are now sadly boarded up with chip board

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Grass and weeds are now growing freely around The Blue Bells main door and on the pavement

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The licence sign of The Blue Bell sadly now looking rather tired and old

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The front of The Blue Bell you can see Holy Trinity Church clock tower on the right of the image

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Notice the broken windows and the curtains hanging out they look vey old

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There is even an original Sky mast next to the drain pipe

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Me and my father Billy Bell often had a drink in The Blue Bell on an afternoon

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The windows of the attic and the first floor are all broken now and the pub now looks a shadow of its former self

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The Zion Street sign looks tattered and weary now is as if to say I have had enough

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In this image you can see nearly all of the boarded up front of The Blue Bell

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The chimney and the attic window can be seen clearly in this image and notice the seagull perched on the attic window

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This image shows The Blue Bells rear extension in Moor Street not quite sure what the function of the extension was but it has been suggested that it could have been the pubs kitchen

Asparagus That I Grow

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This image is of an asparagus plantlet called Sweet Purple I purchased about a dozen of these plantlets of a guy called Keith Wheeler in May 2018
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The roots of the asparagus plantlets can be seen just before I repotted them into larger plant pots

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I use different size pots when transplanting the asparagus seedlings and always mix perlite with the compost I use for transplanting the asparagus

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These images of are of asparagus UC 157 F2 the one of the most popular varieties grown in the world and was developed in the early eighties

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A view of the asparagus plantlets ferns they are looking very healthy and green all these plantlets were grown from seed in my unheated conservatory

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More images of the asparagus plantlets after they had been repotted by me in the conservatory on the allotment

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Image of the ferns of asparagus Sweet Purple planlets which are about seven months old I grew the plantlets from seed in my unheated conservatory

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Friday, 22 March 2019
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Gray Road Hendon

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This a bit of a blured image of the front room of 33 Gray Road in the image you can see a photograph of my late mam and dad celebrating their wedding anniversary also an image of my oldest daughter Lisa

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The fire side in the front room of 33 Gray Road when we were children this was a coal fire but in my mam and dads later life was replaced by an electric fire

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The famous green phone which all of my family hated but my dad loved

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The bay window was a typical type used in the mid seventies on property in Hendon and Sunderland

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Billy Bell my father better known as Hendons historian because of his slide shows and his knowledge of Hendon and Sunderlands history

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David Bell outside 33 Gray Road visiting his father Billy Bell at 33 Gray Road this was just after my Mam had died

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Notice my Berlingo van parked on Gray Road the new buildings on the left was once an old vicarage

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These houses were buitl in the late eighties and were typical of the houses built in Hendon and Sunderland at that time they where well built and looked good

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Image show the repairing of the gable end of the house after wind damage on a house in Gray Road Hendon

Sportsmans Arms

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The Sportsman’s Arms now Known as the Scullery

The Sportsman’s Arms closed on the 05-02-2010 when it closed it was left empty for a few years until a plumbing business opened up a showroom and office in the premises the company owners decided as they were not using all of the building so decided to rent out the old lounge at the rear of the pub

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The Sportsmans Arms Silksworth was once one of the most important buildings in Silksworth

Images taken by Dave Bell

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I took these images from the bottom of High Newport Allotments in May 2010 when the Sportsman’s Arms sadly closed and ended one of the last places that was used and built for the miners and their families of Silksworth very little remains of the miners heritage in Silksworth nowadays

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The once proud sign of the Sportsman’s Arms now looks tired and weary

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Notice the boarded up windows and The Sportsmans Arms sign still swinging as if everything was ok image taken on a wet and windy very cold day

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Close up of the sign on the rear wall of The Sportsmans Arms which closed in May 2010 because of lost revenue caused by very few local people using the public house

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The Sportsmans Arms puplic house built for the miners of Silksworth in 1871 as Silksworth Colliery grew new houses were built for the miners and their families and not forgetting why The Sportsmans Arms built for the miners when they had finished their shifts and to socialise when not working

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Silksworth Colliery shaft was sunk in 1869 In 1871, according to the Census there were approx 800 people living in the Silksworth and Tunstall areas, the local area was mainly farmland and where most people worked on the land.

The Welcome Tavern

August 2009 saw the end of yet another historic Wearside public house when The Welcome Tavern closed its doors for the last time and publican Geoff Moon auctioned off the contents. It seems that old-fashioned local pubs hold little attraction for the young who today generally seem to want frequent wine bars and clubs in city centres. More and more local pubs are closing in towns and cities throughout the country and Sunderland is no exception.

However, it was not always so and indeed, at one time, Sunderland was reported to have more drinking places than any other town of comparable size in the country. In 1880 there were 262 fully licensed houses and 377 beer houses in the town and there was a drink-selling place for every 90 of the adult population and every twentieth house sold drink of some kind.  However, this was much less than 1820 when Low Street, for example, boasted 41 pubs. By 1888 in the same street there were only 12 and by 1916 only three.

The demise in the number of pubs continued during the first half of the twentieth century and by the 1950s Sunderland was down to150 pubs and 50 beer houses with many of the old taverns having disappeared including many which carried names of local notables of the past and commemorated Sunderland's Wearside shipbuilding traditions.

Among the pubs of yesteryear was the George Inn in High Street where Sunderland magistrates held court in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Inquests were held in the Mountain Daisy which is still in Hylton Road whilst two inns in High Street, The Gardener's Tavern and The Grey Horse were the termini for the stage coaches to Durham and Seaham.

Many of the names of old Sunderland pubs seem to have had links with rural surroundings rather than an industrial town, examples being The Dog and Pheasant in Coronation Street, Green Shutters in High Street and Strawberry Cottage in Tustall Lane.

Examples of old pubs named after notables were the Robin Hood in High Street, Burns Arms in Coronation Street, the General Wolfe, Lord Byron in Malings Rigg, the William Pile in Dame Dorothy Street and the Jack Crawford in Whitburn Street.

The Clipper Ship in Monkwearmouth was a reminder of the days when  vessels like The Torrens were built at Sunderland, while shipyard and waterfront trades were represented by the Boilermakers Arms, Smiths Arms, Waterman's Tavern, Trimmers Arms, Engineers' Arms, Engineers' Tavern and Shipwrights Arms.

Pubs such as the Hat and Feather, Coach and Horses, Argo Frigate, Shoulder of Mutton and New Shades were full of character. Havelock, the hero of the relief of Lucknow was commemorated by two General Havelocks and the Havelock Hotel whilst other names were not exclusive to one pub - there were three Bee Hives, three Oddfellows Arms and three Wheatsheafs in different parts of the town.

Several of the told town's pubs were better known to their patrons by names other than those listed in the official records althought the origin of some of their nicknames have been lost with the passing of time  - examples were The Scotch House (Tea Shop), Neptune (No.9), Laings (Vestry), Commercial Vaults (Long Bar), and the Theatre Tavern (Pollys).

Surprisingly, there were relatively few pubs in new Hendon (Villette Road and Ryhope Road area).  Some of the old mansion houses there were turned into pubs, an example being Hendon House, home of the Bramwell family which became the International Hotel. Pub building in Hendon was, however, limited somewhat by restrictions contained in the Will of the Mowbray family who owned much of the land built on in new Hendon. A covenant of February 1850 also imposed a number of restrictions on the new houses to be built in Hendon. A long list of trades were not allowed to be practised in these houses, one of which was use as an ale house.  Pubs such as the Victoria Gardens (formerly Victoria Villa) and Hendon Grange were already in place before the streets were built


The Phoenix Inn, Chester Road.

                               The Rose and Crown, High Street West

 

                     The New Shades Hotel, Hendon Road

  

Holy Trinity Parish Chuch

Holy Trinity Parish Church Hendon Sunderland

 
   
   

Holy Trinity Church (sometimes Church of the Holy Trinity or Sunderland Parish Church) was an Anglican church[1] in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear. It was opened in 1719 as the church for the newly created Parish of Sunderland,[2] and served the local community until dwindling numbers forced its closure in 1988. It has since been in the ownership of the Churches Conservation Trust who have preserved the space and converted it into a community cultural hub


History of Holy Trinity Hendon Sunderland

In 1712, with the port of Sunderland growing rapidly, the local St. Michael's church at Bishopwearmouth was rapidly becoming too small to serve the growing population.[3] Some local merchants came together and started an appeal to build a new church in the east end of the city, and a site on the town moor was chosen.

Because of the rapid growth of the population, it was also decided that a new parish should be created, and on 9 March 1719 an act of parliament was passed to create the Parish of Sunderland[4][5] (thus the church is sometimes referred to as Sunderland Parish Church). The Bishop of Durham of the time, Nathaniel Crew gave his consent, as did Reverend James Bowes

The architect of the original church is not known for certain, although there are reports of involvement from William Eddy a well-known local architect) and Daniel Newcombe, who would be appointed the first rector of the church.

The building itself has a Baroque style, brick built and with stone mouldings surrounding the doors and windows. The original building was without apse, although this would later be added (see below), and from the outside is described by Whellan as "plain and unprepossessing

Inside, the building is described by Whellan as "handsome",[8] with the aisles of pews being separated from the central nave by seven pillars on each side, each being capped with a corinthian-style capital. His full description reads:

The interior is handsome, and comprises a nave and chancel, and aisles, the latter of which are separated from the Nave by seven elegant pillars on each side, with Corinthian capitals. The communion table occupies a recess, covered by a dome supported in front by two Corinthian columns. There are galleries on each side, and at the west end of the nave; the front of the latter is charged with the royal arms, and those of Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham. Above the gallery is a smaller one for the accommodation of the choir.
— William Whellan, History, Topography, and Directory of the County Palpatine of Durham

Opening

Following the start of groundwork in 1718, the church building was completed the next year, such that on 5 September 1719 the consecration of the premises took place prior to this, however, on 2 June 1719, the first recorded marriage took place at the church, of Jonathan Chambers and Elizabeth Hutchinson
1700s
View of apse with tower in background

In 1735, Daniel Newcombe, the rector of the church who almost certainly had been involved in the original design of the building, decided to add an apse to the eastern end. This would give the building a chancel, which it had lacked until this point. The apse was large, near circular, and featuring a large venetian window; it still stands as part of the building today. Newcombe paid for the extension with his own money
1800s

The church started the nineteenth century with a new roof in 1803, which included its raising so that a new gallery could be add]
Jack Crawford Memorial
Main article: Jack Crawford (sailor)
Jack Crawford memorial in the graveyard

Jack Crawford, the "Hero of Camperdown", was a sailor aboard HMS Venerable in 1797, during the Battle of Camperdown. Venerable took fire damaging its mast, which lowered the flag of Admiral Duncan - recognised as the sign of surrender - so Crawford scaled the remnants of the mast and nailed the Admiral's flag back to the top.

Crawford was well celebrated for his act of heroism, and the people of Sunderland awarded him a silver star. In the coming years, however, he fell into poverty and was killed by a cholera outbreak in 1831.

In 1888, Holy Trinity Church erected a headstone in its graveyard in his honour.

The sailor who heroically nailed Admiral Duncan's flag to the main-top-callant-mast of H.M.S. Venerable, after it had been shot away, in the glorious action off Camperdown, October 11th 1797.
Jack Crawford was born in the pottery-bank Sunderland 1775, and died in his native town 1831, aged 56 years.
— Jack Crawford Memorial, Holy Trinity Churchyard

This was followed two years later by a statue of commemoration in Mowbray Park.
1900s

The 1900s started with the church being re-glazed,[6] before community life began to degrade and the number of churchgoers in the east end of Sunderland dimished.[10]
Closure

The congregation continued to diminish throughout the 20th century, until on 26th June 1988 the church was forced to close, and transferred to the Redundant Churches Fund[10] (now known as the Churches Conservation Trust). The building itself needed extensive and costly repairs, and indeed to this day the Trust are still undertaking repairs.
Present Day
Southern (side) elevation

No longer in use as a place of worship, the building these days goes by the name of The Canny Space, a community venue and cultural arts centre. Restoration work is still underway, with most of the money being fundraised; as of 2015, £1,341,014 had been raised towards the project

The project's Creative Director role has been filled by noted local musician Dave Stewart, former member of theEurythmics.

North Eastern Breweries Ltd

North Eastern Breweries Ltd
The Bramwell & Co, Wear Brewery

North Eastern Breweries Ltd, Wear Brewery, Westbourne Road, Sunderland, Tyne & Wear.

Registered December 1896 with over 180 houses to acquire: Bramwell & Co, Wear Brewery; William Story & Co, Moor Street Brewery, Sunderland; Richard Murray, wine, spirit and ale merchants and aerated water manufacturer, Consett; J H Graham, Middlesborough, wine and spirit merchant; Patrick Bruce Junor, Tower Brewery, Tudhoe Grange, Spennymoor and Thomas Elwen, Frederick Street, Sunderland, ale and porter merchants.Merged with Vaux Breweries Ltd. 1927 to form Associated Breweries Ltd. Ceased brewing on site in 1936 but continued to malt. The Wear Brewery was closed in 1942.Ceased brewing on site in 1936 but continued to malt. 


List of North Eastern Breweries Ltd. pubs in Sunderland & Eastern Durham

  1. John Street Tavern, John Street, Sunderland
    2. Waterman’s Tavern, Hat Case, Sunderland
    3. Dog & Pheasant, Coronation Street, Sunderland
    4. Borough Hotel, Borough Road, Sunderland
    5. Bush Inn, Hendon Valley Road, Sunderland
    6. Blue Bell, Fulwell, Sunderland
    7. Star & Garter, New Durham Road, Sunderland
    8. Station Hotel, Southwick, Sunderland
    9. Off- licence, Lansdowne Road, Sunderland
    10. Oak Tree, North Hylton, Sunderland
    11. Pemberton Arms, Southwick
    12. Shipwright’s Arms, North Hylton
    13. Three Tuns, East Street, Sunderland
    14. Terrace Tavern, North Hylton
    15. North Star, Southwick
    16. Cottage Tavern, Hopper Street, Sunderland
    17. Edinburgh House, Sunderland
    18. Glassmaker’s Arms, Grey Street, Sunderland
    19. International Hotel, Rock Terrace, Sunderland
    20. Albion, Southwick, Sunderland
    21. Albion, Green Lane, Sunderland
    22. Burton House Hotel, Sunderland
    23. Sportsman’s Arms, Sunderland
    24. Vane Arms, New Silksworth, near Sunderland
    25. Black Bull, Bishopwearmouth, Sunderland
    26. George & Dragon, Bishopwearmouth
    27. Manchester Unity, Sunderland
    28. Ship Burlinson, Vine Street, Sunderland (referred 1907)
    29. Black Bull, East Boldon, near Sunderland
    30. New Queen’s Head, Northgate, Hartlepool
    31. Mill Inn, New Seaham, Seaham Harbour
    32. Colliery Inn, New Seaham
    33. Duke of Wellington, Durham Street, Hartlepool
    34. Hardwick Inn, Mainsforth Terrace, Hartlepool
    35. Central Hotel, Stockton on Tees
    36. Grand Hotel, Bishop Street, Stockton on Tees
    37. Royal Hotel, Dugdale Street, Stockton on Tees
    38. Ship, High Street, Stockton on Tees
    39. Lambton Castle, High Street, Stockton on Tees
    40. Mechanic’s Arms, Norton Road, Stockton on Tees
    41. Oxbridge Tavern, Oxbridge Lane, Stockton
    42. Station Hotel, Seaham Harbour
    43. Old Queen’s Head, Northgate Street, Hartlepool
    44. Wheatsheaf, Market Place, Houghton le Spring
    45. King’s Arms, North Terrace, Seaham Harbour
    46. Locomotive Tavern, Trimdon Colliery
    47. Colliery Tavern, Shotton Colliery
    48. Half Moon, Easington
    49. Station Hotel, Northgate Street, Harlepool
    50. Ship Inn, Middlegate Street, Hartlepool
    51. Copt Hill Inn, Copt Hill, Houghton le Spring
    52. Highland Laddie, West Rainton, near Houghton le Spring
    53. Bon Lea Hotel, South Shields
    54. Black Lion, Sunderland Street, Houghton le Spring
    55. Ram’s Head, Sunderland Street, Houghton le Spring
    56. Royal Oak (formerly Green Tree), Houghton le Spring
    57. Lyons Tavern, Four Lane Ends, Hetton le Hole
    58. Robin Hood, Primrose Hill, Jarrow
    59. Commercial Hotel, Commercial Road, Jarrow
    60. William IV, High Street, Stockton on Tees
    61. Lord Seaham Hotel, West Rainton, near Houghton le Spring
    62. Black Lion, High Street, Stockton on Tees
    63. Station Hotel, Horden
    64. Queen’s Head, Monkton Road, Jarrow
    65. Royal Hotel, Market Square, Jarrow
    66. Station Hotel, Ellison Street/ Grange Road, Jarrow
    67. Royal Hotel, Port ClarencList of North Eastern Breweries Ltd. pubs in Bishop Auckland, Spennymoor & District

List of North Eastern Breweries Ltd. pubs in Bishop Auckland, Spennymoor & District

1. Fleece Hotel, Bondgate, Bishop Auckland
2. Hare & Hounds, Church Street, Coundon
3. Joiner’s Arms, Hunwick, near Bishop Auckland
4. Queen’s Head, Auckland Terrace, Shildon
5. Royal Hotel, Cockfield, near Bishop Auckland
6. Surtees Arms, Main Street, Shildon
7. Station Hotel, New Coundon
8. Station Hotel, Tod Hills, near Bishop Auckland
9. Traveller’s Rest, Evenwood
10. Witton Castle Inn, Woodside, near Bishop Auckland
11. Pear Tree, Byers Green, near Spennymoor
12. Welcome Inn, Cockfield
13. White Hart, Merrington, near Spennymoor
14. Bowes Arms, Galgate, Barnard Castle
15. Raby Hotel, Tubwell Row, Darlington
16. Globe Inn, Piercebridge, near Darlington
17. Fox & Hounds, Teesway, Neasham
18. Rose & Crown, Mickleton, near Barnard Castle
19. Black Horse, Tudhoe Colliery, Spennymoor
20. Black Horse, Commercial Street, Willington
21. Blue Bell, Low Willington
22. Burn Hotel, High Street, Willington
23. Brewers Inn, Quarryburn Lane, Hunwick, near Spennymoor
24. Beehive, Fishburn, near Sedgefield
25. County Hotel, Durham Road, Spennymoor
26. Commercial, Cheapside, Spennymoor
27. Cambridge, Cambridge Street, Spennymoor
28. Coach & Horses, Butcher Race, near Spennymoor
29. Carr’s Hotel, West Cornforth, near Ferryhill
30. East Howle Hotel, East Howle, near Ferryhill
31. Grand Hotel, Cheapside, Spennymoor
32. King’s Head, Durham Road, Ferryhill
33. Lord Raglan, High Street, Spennymoor
34. Marquis of Granby, Byer’s Green
35. North Eastern Hotel, High Street, Spennymoor
36. Puddler’s Arms, Low Spennymoor
37. Railway, Merrington Lane, near Spennymoor
38. Shepherd’s Arms, Billy Row, near Crook
39. Surtees Hotel, High Street, Spennymoor
40. Steam Mill Lane, Merrington Lane
41. Ship Inn, Middlestone, near Spennymoor
42. Swan, Ferryhill Station, near Ferryhill
43. Three Horse Shoes, Fishburn
44. Vulcan, Low Spennymoor
45. Wheatsheaf, Chilton, near Ferrybridge
46. White Horse Inn, Ferryhill
47. Waterloo, High Street, Spennymoor
48. Butcher’s Arms, Merrington Lane
49. Board Inn, Church Street, Crook
50. Foundry Inn, Merrington Lane
51. Greyhound, Ferryhill
52. Colliery Inn, Jobs Hill, near Crook
53. Pit Laddie, Dundas Street, Spennymoor
54. Red Lion Hotel, Queen Street, Spennymoor `
55. Puddler’s Arms, Witton Park , near Bishop Auckland


List of North Eastern Breweries Ltd. pubs in Durham, Consett & District

1. Bay Horse, Sherburn Hill, near Durham
2. Old Elm Tree, Crossgate, Durham
3. Glendinning Arms, Witton Gilbert, near Durham
4. Half way House, Thornley Lane End, Thornley, near Durham
5. Lambton Hounds, Pity Me, near Durham
6. Nicky Nack, Croxdale, near Durham
7. New Brancepeth Hotel, New Brancepeth, near Durham
8. Queen’s Head, Ludworth, near Durham
9. Station, Langley Park, near Durham
10. Saddle, Shadforth, near Durham
11. Victoria, Cassop, near Durham
12. North Durham Hotel, Pity Me
13. Railway Hotel, Thornley
14. Seven Stars, Shincliffe, near Durham
15. Tyneside Inn, Coxhoe, near Durham
16. Commercial Hotel, Coxhoe
17. Rock House Hotel, Brancepeth
18. Durham Ox, Gilesgate, Durham
19. Great Britain, Leamside, near Durham
20. Black Bull, Cassop
21. Fox Inn, Dipton, near Stanley
22. Freemason’s Arms, Front Street, Consett
23. Golden Lion, High Street, Tow Law
24. Hobson Hotel, Hobson, near Burnopfield
25. King’s Head, Market Place, Wolsingham
26. Chelmsford Hotel, Ebchester, near Consett
27. Commercial Hotel, Front Street, Stanley
28. Commercial, Leadgate, near Consett
29. Crown & Thistle, Catchgate, Annfield Plain
30. Derwent Hotel, Durham Road, Blackhill
31. Black Bull, Dipton
32. Bird Inn, White le Head, near Stanley
33. Blue Bell, Lanchester
34. Black Horse, Burnopfield
35. Pack Horse, Market Place, Wolsingham
36. Punchbowl, Craghead, near Stanley
37. Queen’s, Middle Street, Consett
38. Royal, Blackhill
39. Royal, Front Street, Stanley
40. King’s Head, Front Street, Stanley
41. Mason’s Arms, Iveston, near Consett
42. Mason’s Arms, Wolsingham Road, Tow Law
43. Moorcock, Waskerley, near Muggleswick
44. Mount Pleasant, New Market Street, Consett
45. Royal Hotel, Dan’s Castle, Tow Law
46. Smelter’s Arms, Castleside, near Consett
47. Ship Inn, Blackhall Mill, Ebchester
48. Station Hotel, Blackhill
49. Station, Ebchester
50. Surtees Tavern, Dan’s Castle, Tow Law
51. Three Tuns, Whickham
52. Wheatsheaf, Angate Street, Wolsingham
53. Bay Horse, Upper Town, Wolsingham
54. North Eastern, Hawthorn Terrace, Blackhill
55. Rock House Off- licence, Sleetburn, near Durham
56. Board Inn, Burnopfield
57. Off- licence, John Street, Consett
58. Off- licence, Park Road, Consett
59. Brandy Inn, Blackhill
60. Britannia, Consett
61. Burton Hotel, Victoria Street, Consett
62. Miner’s Arms, Medomsley, near Consett
63. Mill Inn, Blackhall Mill
64. Red Ox, Dipton
65. Shakespeare, Shakespeare Street, Consett
66. Victoria, Blackhill
67. White Swan, Front Street, Consett
68. Wear Valley Hotel, Wolsingham
69. Bridge Inn, Tow Law (referred 1907)
70. Roebuck, Tow Law (referred 1907)
71. Stirling Castle, Ox Place, Consett
72. Beerhouse, John Street, Consett
73. Miner’s Arms, Healeyfield, near Consett
74. Royal Oak, Medomsley


 

List of North Eastern Breweries Ltd. pubs in Middlesbrough & North Yorkshire

1. Royal, South Bank, near Middlesbrough
2. King’s Head, Victoria Road, Grangetown, near Middlesbrough
3. Pennyman’s Arms, Market Place, North Ormesby, Middlesbrough
4. Queen’s Hotel, Gilkes Street, Middlesbrough
5. Leeds Hotel, Wilson Street, Middlesbrough
6. Victoria, Middlesbrough Road, South Bank
7. Worsley Arms, Smeaton Street, North Ormesby
8. Robin Hood, Commercial Street, Middlesbrough
9. Stapylton Arms, High Street, Eston
10. Windmill, Middlesbrough
11. Off- licence, Middlesbrough Road, South Bank
12. Off- licence, Nile Street, South Bank
13. Off- licence, Nelson Street, South Bank
14. Albion, Commercial Street, Middlesbrough
15. Captain Cook Hotel, Durham Street, Middlesbrough
16. Clarendon Hotel, Middlesbrough
17. Erimus Hotel, Newton Street, Middlesbrough
18. Marquis of Granby, Hill Street, Middlesbrough
19. Dock Hotel, Lower East Street, Middlesbrough
20. Ladle Inn, Marton, near Middlesbrough
21. Palmerston Hotel, Newport Road, Middlesbrough
22. Roseberry Hotel, Linthorpe Road, Middlesbrough
23. Blue Bell, Acklam Road, Middlesbrough
24. Cannon Hotel, Cannon Street, Misslesbrough
25. Globe Hotel, Nelson Street, South Bank
26. Premises, late Middlesbrough Hotel, North Street, Middlesbrough
27. Royal Oak, Cannon Street, Middlesbrough
28. Volunteer Hotel, Denmark Street, Middlesbrough
29. Zetland Hotel, Zetland Road, Middlesbrough
30. Corporation Hotel, Corporation Road, Middlesbrough
31. Alexandra Hotel, Back Amber Street, Saltburn
32. Bridge Inn, The Green, Stapleton, near Darlington
33. Cleveland Hotel, Smeaton Street, North Ormesby
34. Central Hotel, Smeaton Street, North Ormesby
35. Bon Lea Hotel, Mandale Road, Thornaby on Tees
36. Station Hotel, Mandale Road, Thornaby on Tees
37. Farmer’s Arms, Gatherley Road, Brompton on Swale
38. Ketton Ox, High Street, Yarm
39. Lingdale Hotel, Stranghow Road, Lingdale
40. Oddfellow’s Arms, Hunton, near Bedale
41. Premises, late Railway Hotel, Catterick Bridge
42. Station Hotel, High Street, Brotton
43. Traveller’s Rest, Eppleby, near Richmond
44. Zetland Hotel, Nelson Street, South Bank
45. Zetland Hotel, High Street, Marske
46. Castle Inn, Market Place, Richmond
47. Cleveland Hotel, Redcar
48. Shoulder of Mutton, Staithes
49. Ship Inn, Marske
50. Ship Inn, Guisborough


List of North Eastern Breweries Ltd. pubs in Northumberland

  1. Volunteer Arms, Sunderland Street, Newcastle (lost 1906)
    2. Graham Arms, Scotswood Road, Newcastle
    3. Royal Sovereign, Cut Bank, Newcastle
    4. Hope & Anchor, Horatio Street, Newcastle
    5. Barrack Tavern, Barrack Road, Newcastle
    6. Jingling Gate Inn, Throckley
    7. Ridley Inn, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle
    8. Tiger Inn, Bedford Street, North Shields
    9. Blandford Inn, Blandford Street, Newcastle
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    The Sportsman’s Arms now Known as the Scullery

    The Sportsman’s Arms closed on the 05-02-2010 when it closed it was left empty for a few years until a plumbing business opened up a showroom and office in the premises the company owners decided as they were not using all of the building so decided to rent out the old lounge at the rear of the pub

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    The Sportsmans Arms Silksworth was once one of the most important buildings in Silksworth

    Images taken by Dave Bell

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    I took these images from the bottom of High Newport Allotments in May 2010 when the Sportsman’s Arms sadly closed and ended one of the last places that was used and built for the miners and their families of Silksworth very little remains of the miners heritage in Silksworth nowadays

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    The once proud sign of the Sportsman’s Arms now looks tired and weary

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    Notice the boarded up windows and The Sportsmans Arms sign still swinging as if everything was ok image taken on a wet and windy very cold day

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    Close up of the sign on the rear wall of The Sportsmans Arms which closed in May 2010 because of lost revenue caused by very few local people using the public house

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    The Sportsmans Arms puplic house built for the miners of Silksworth in 1871 as Silksworth Colliery grew new houses were built for the miners and their families and not forgetting why The Sportsmans Arms built for the miners when they had finished their shifts and to socialise when not working

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    Silksworth Colliery shaft was sunk in 1869 In 1871, according to the Census there were approx 800 people living in the Silksworth and Tunstall areas, the local area was mainly farmland and where most people worked on the land.

    The Sportsmans Arms Silksworth just after it had closed in 2012 its looking rather a sad Public House 

Vaux Breweries Ltd

Vaux Breweries Ltd, Castle Street Brewery, Sunderland, Tyne & Wear.

Founded by Cuthbert Vaux 1837 at Matlock Street Brewery.

Moved to Castle Street 1875. Registered 1896 as C.Vaux & Sons Ltd.

Merged with North Eastern Breweries Ltd. 1927 to form Associated Breweries Ltd.

Name changed as above 1973.

At that time held 700 houses in England and 200 Thomas Usher & Son Ltd houses in Scotland.

After pressure from the City, closed 1999.


 

List of Vaux Breweries Ltd. pubs in County Durham

1. Mill Inn, Blackhall Mill
2. Cottage Tavern, Shield Road, Cleadon Village
3. Ivy House, Worcester Street, Sunderland
4. Rosedene, Queen Alexandra Road, Sunderland
5. Saltgrass, Ayres Quay, Sunderland
6. Seaburn Hotel, Queen’s Parade, Sunderland
7. Borough, Vine Place, Sunderland
8. Chester, Chester Road, Sunderland
9. Brewery Tap, Dunning Street, Sunderland
10. Welcome Tavern, Barrack Street, Sunderland
11. Pennywell Inn, Portsmouth Road, Sunderland
12. Vane Arms, Silksworth Terrace, Sunderland
13. Walworth Castle, Walworth Road, Sunderland (owned 1920)
14. Rose & Crown, High Street West, Sunderland (owned 1918)
15. Laburnum Cottsge, Norman Street, Sunderland (owned 1918)
16. Brougham Arms, Brougham Street, Sunderland (owned 1918)
17. Temple Bar, Johnson Street, Sunderland (owned 1918)
18. Propeller, Low Street, Sunderland (referred 1907)
19. Bottlemaker’s Arms, Hanover Place, Sunderland (referred 1907)
20. Ship Inn, Ayres Quay, Sunderland (referred 1907)
21. Fountain Head, Millum Terrace, Sunderland (referred 1907)
22. New Pier Hotel, Millum Terrace, Sunderland (referred 1907)
23. Howard Arms, Roker Avenue, Sunderland (purchased 1990 from Joshua Tetley, Leeds)
24. King’s Arms, Beach Street, Sunderland (purchased 1990 from Joshua Tetley, Leeds)
25. Lansdowne, Deptford Road, Millfield, Sunderland
26. Cricketer’s, Cornforth Lane, Coxhoe
27. Garden House Inn, North Road, Darlington
28. Miner’s Arms, Manor Road, Medomsley, near Consett
29. Fox & Hounds, Teesway, Neasham
30. Seven Stars, Shincliffe, near Durham
31. Black Bull, Front Street, East Boldon
32. Parkwood Hotel, Darlington Road, Stockton on Tees
33. Shepherd & Shepherdess, Beamish
34. Black Horse Inn, Beamish
35. Red Lion, Front Street, Chester le Street
36. Dog Inn, Cross Lanes, Heighington, near Darlington
37. North Briton, High Street, Aycliffe Village
38. Pennyweight, Bakehouse Hill, Darlington
39. Avenue, Avenue Street, High Shincliffe
40. Blacksmith’s Arms, Low Pittington, near Durham
41. Red Alligator, South Church, Bishop Auckland
42. Beacon Inn, Green’s Place, South Shields
43. Three Tuns, New Elvet, Durham
44. Queen’s Head, Front Street, Lanchester
45. Blue Bell, Front Street, Lanchester
46. New Ship, Sunderland Road, Cleadon
47. Grey Horse, Front Street, East Boldon
48. Azure Blue, Eastbourne Avenue, Gateshead
49. Duke of Albany, Albany Village, Washington
50. Coach & Horses, Butcher Race, near Spennymoor
51. Half Moon, Low Spennymoor
52. Iron Horse, Emerson Way, Newton Aycliffe
53. Moor Edge, Front Street, Sherburn Hill
54. Blue Bell, High Street, Gateshead
55. Oddfellow’s Arms, Westbourne Terrace, Shiney Row, Houghton le Spring
56. Bird, Pelton, near Chester le Street
57. Fir Tree, Hedley Hill, Cornsay Colliery
58. Lambton Arms, Front Street, Sherburn Hill
59. King’s Head, Shotley Bridge, near Consett
60. Dan’s Castle Inn, Tow Law
61. Moorcock, Waskerley, near Consett
62. Glendinning Arms, Front Street, Witton Gilbert
63. Rose & Shamrock, South Shields Road, Birtley
64. Highgate, Cutler Hall Road, Blackhill
65. Welcome, Front Street, Cockfield
66. Commercial, Commercial Road, Coxhoe
67. Old Elm Tree, Crossgate, Durham
68. Pot & Glass, Crossgate Moor, Durham
69. Chelmsford Hotel, Ebchester
70. Beehive, Fishburn, near Durham
71. Grey Horse, Haswell, near Sunderland
72. Centurion, Wall Nook Lane, Langley Park
73. Crown, Whitworth Terrace, Spennymoor
74. Surtees Hotel, Dan’s Castle, Tow Law
75. Golden Lion, Broadway, Houghton le Spring
76. Shipwright’s Arms, Ferryboat Lane, North Hylton
77. Coach & Horses, Croxdale
78. Peacock, Tanfield, near Gateshead
79. Gold Medal, Chowdene Bank, Low Fell, Gateshead
80. Smith’s Arms, Carlton, near Stockton
81. Bowesfield, Bowesfield Lane, Stockton on Tees
82. Victoria, Durham Road, Blackhill
83. Victoria, School Street, Witton le Wear
84. Dun Cow, High Street, Witton le Wear
85. Double Maxim, Durham Road, Sunderland
86. Crown & Thistle, Catchgate, near Annfield Plain
87. Oxbridge, Oxbridge Lane, Stockton on Tees
88. Marsden Grotto, Marsden, near South Shields
89. Free Gardeners, Grafton Street, Fencehouses
90. Plough Inn, Four Lane Ends, Houghton le Spring
91. Whitwell Inn, New Durham (owned 1897)
92. Mill Race, West End, Wolsingham
93. Prospect, Victoria Terrace, Penshaw
94. Old Cross, Ryton
95. Steamboat, Coronation Street, Sunderland
96. Ash Tree, Carr Lane, Spennymoor
97. Back o’ the Shaft, Consett
98. Middlesbrough Hotel, Princess Street, West Hartlepool (purchased 1990 from Joshua Tetley, Leeds)
99. Wellington, Dubmire, near Fencehouses
100. Bull’s Head, Market Place, Darlington, licence to the:
101. Copper Beach, Neasham Road, Darlington (opened 1957)
102. George Hotel, Piercebridge, near Darlington
103. Alexandra, Grangetown, Sunderland (opened 1947)
104. Mile House Hotel, Durham Road, Stockton on Tees
105. Harbour of Refuge, Croft Terrace, Hartlepool
106. Blue Bell, Station Road, Fulwell Road, Sunderland


 

List of Vaux Breweries Ltd. pubs in Northumberland

1. Black Bull, Etal, near Wooler
2. Black Cock, Falstone, near Bellingham
3. Fisher’s Arms, Main Street, Horncliffe
4. Black Bull, Bridge Street, Warkworth
5. Anchor Inn, Cheviot Street, Wooler
6. Fox & Hounds, Main Street, Wylam
7. Clayton Arms, Dudley Lane, Dudley
8. Collingwood Hotel, Wansbeck Road, Gosforth
9. Killingworth Arms, Killingworth, near Newcastle
10. Alexandra, Queen Alexandra Road, North Shields
11. Steamboat, Bridge Street, Blyth
12. Old Ship Inn, Front Street, Newbiggin on Sea
13. Black Swan, Union Street, Seahouses
14. Hadrian Hotel, Wall Village, near Hexham
15. Waterloo, 17 Bondicar Terrace (Havelock Street), Blyth. See: Waterloo, Blyth
16. Earl Grey, High Street, Gosforth
17. Wheatsheaf, Watling Street, Corbridge
18. New Inn, West Road, Haltwhistle
19. Crown & Anchor, Main Street, Horsley
20. White Swan, Lowick, near Belford
21. Royal Buffet, Grey Street, Newcastle
22. Waggonway, King Street, Blyth
23. West Wylam, Front Street, Prudhoe
24. Forester’s Arms, West Sleekburn, near Blyth
25. Ca’ Canny, Beaumont Terrace, Brunswick Village
26. Percy Arms, Percy Street, Newcastle
27. Royal Tavern, Beaconsfield Street, Blyth
28. George, Chollerford
29. Hawthorn, Fawdon, near Newcastle
30. Lord Crewe Arms, Blanchland, near Hexham
31. Waterford Arms, Seaton Sluice, near Whitley Bay
32. Black Diamond, Phoenix Street, Newsham, near Blyth
33. Jingling Gates, West Whorlton, near Newcastle
34. Market Hotel, Fenkle Street, Alnwick
35. Oddfellow’s Arms, Narrowgate, Alnwick
36. Castle Inn, Front Street, Bamburgh
37. Howard Arms, Bedlington
38. Wharton Arms, Bedlington
39. Black Swan, Market Place, Belford
40. Salmon Inn, 31 High Street, Belford. See: Salmon, Belford
41. Berwick Arms, Marygate, Berwick-upon-Tweed
42. Brown Bear Inn, 27 Hide Hill, Berwick-upon-Tweed. See: Brown Bear, Berwick-upon-Tweed
43. Free Trade Inn, Castlegate, Berwick-upon-Tweed
44. Harrow Inn, Main Street, Tweedmouth
45. Hen & Chickens, Sandgate, Berwick-upon-Tweed
46. King’s Arms, Hide Hill, Berwick-upon-Tweed
47. Meadow House Inn, North Road, Berwick-upon-Tweed
48. Miner’s Arms, Sunnyside, Tweedmouth
49. Old Angel Inn, Marygate, Berwick-upon-Tweed
50. Queen’s Head, Church Street, Tweedmouth
51. Rose & Thistle, Walkergate, Berwick-upon-Tweed
52. Roxburgh Hotel, Main Street, Spittal, near Berwick-upon-Tweed
53. Royal Hotel, 4 Main Street, Tweedmouth. See: Royal Hotel, Tweedmouth
54. Errington Arms, Stagshaw Bank, near Corbridge
55. County Hotel, Priestpopple, Hexham
56. Crown & Anchor, Holy Island
57. Salutation, Shoreswood, near Berwick-upon-Tweed
58. Plough, 24 Bondgate Without, Alnwick. See: Plough, Alnwick
59. George, 63 Bondgate Within, Alnwick. See: George, Alnwick
60. Grove, 145 Etal Road, Tweedmouth. See: Grove, Tweedmouth


List of Vaux breweries Ltd. pubs in North Yorkshire

1. Fox Covert, High Leven, near Yarm
2. Ketton Ox, High Street, Yarm
3. Miner’s Arms, Boosbeck Road, Skelton
4. Hildyard Arms, Colburn, near Richmond
5. Hotel St. George, Ripon Road, Harrogate
6. Cross Keys, North Stainley, near Ripon
7. Wheatsheaf, Quarry Moor, near Ripon
8. Rose & Crown, Wormald Green, near Ripon
9. Bridge Inn, Stapleton, near Darlington
10. Buck Inn, Chop Gate, Near Stokesley
11. Captain Cook, Staithes
12. Alexandra Vaults, Saltburn
13. Royal Oak, Bond End, Knaresborough
14. World’s End, Bond End, Knaresborough
15. Blue Bell, Fossgate, York
16. Rockingham Arms, Towton, near Tadcaster
17. Gosford Hotel, Middlesbrough
18. Zetland Hotel, High Street, Marske
19. Water Rat, Bondgate Green, Richmond
20. Crown Hotel, Brompton on Swale
21. Eagle, Rothbury Road, Middlesbrough (opened 1958/59)
22. Hollywell View, Liverton, near Guisborough


 

List of Vaux Breweries Ltd. pubs in West Yorkshire

1. Albion, Lane Head, Brighouse
2. Calder & Hebble, Salterhebble, Halifax
3. Country House Hotel, Hipperholme
4. Hole in the Wall, Old Gate, Hebden Bridge
5. Jumples Hotel, Halifax
6. Omnibus, Ambler Thorn, Queensbury
7. Pack Horse, Cain Lane, Southowram
8. Railway, New Road, Hebden Bridge
9. Running Man, Pellon Lane, Halifax
10. Windmill, Park Square, Northowram
11. Golden Fleece, Lindley Road, Elland
12. Springfield, Bradford Road, Idle, Bradford
13. Mail Coach, Huddersfield Road, Odsal, Bradford
14. Peacock, Leeds Road, Huddersfield
15. Dusty Miller, Burnley Road, Mytholmroyd


 

List of Vaux Breweries Ltd. pubs in North Western England

1. Weaver’s Arms, Oldham Road, Manchester
2. Cardwell Arms, Chorley Road, Adlington
3. Cross Keys, Clitheroe
4. Queen Inn, Aughton Street, Ormskirk
5. Mitre Tavern, Moor Lane, Preston
6. Bear’s Paw, Church Street, Preston
7. Mister Pickwick’s, Meadow Street, Preston
8. Watering Trough, Fylde Road, Preston
9. Tame Valley, Park Road, Dukinfield
10. Rose & Crown, Market Street, Stalybridge
11. Riverside, Melbourne Street, Stalybridge
12. New Waggon & Horses, Hyde Road, Woodley, near Hyde
13. Temple & Bowling Green, Huddersfield Road, Springhead, near Oldham
14. Star Inn, Huddersfield Road, Scouthead, near Oldham
15. Barge, High Street, Stalybridge
16. Lane Ends Inn, High Reedley, Brierfield
17. Royal Oak, Longsight Road, Clayton le Dale
18. Park Hotel, Cemetery Road, Darwen
19. Maxim’s, Bradshawgate, Bolton
20. Crown Inn, Deansgate, Manchester
21. Bonaparte’s, Clarence Street, Liverpool
22. Mersey Hotel, Mersey Street, Warrington
23. Dog & Partridge, Oldham Road, Rochdale


List of Vaux Breweries Ltd. pubs in London

  1. Princess Louise, High Holborn, London WC1
    2. White Lion, High Street, Putney, London SW15
    3. Crocker’s, Aberdeen Place, Maida Vale, London NW8
    4. Rat & Parrot, East Barnet Road, New Barnet
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    Notice the new houses on the right of the Blue Bell these where built in the 1970s and are privately owned

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    The roof of The Blue Bell was once a beautiful tiled structure but over many years of neglect sadly it is now nothing like it was in its hey day notice the attic window and the chimney pots and the TV mast

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    The Blue Bell was situated in Zion Street Hendon Sunderland which was a street in the Jewish quarter of Hendon

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    The Blue Bell looks very sad in its derelict condition and was pulled down shortly after I took these images

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    My white Berlingo van can be seen on the left of the image

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    Holy Trinity church can be seen in the background the church was opened in 1719 for the growing population of Sunderland as the ship building industry grew

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    The attic window of The Blue Bell I wonder what history it can tell us about the pub

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    Close up of the Blue Bells attic window now sadly looking very delapitdated after the pub closed shortly after the Blue Bell was pulled down and made into a car park

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    Notice the broken windows the drain pipes and the Sky antenna on the wall

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    Close up of the broken windows and the drain pipes and the size of the bricks these were the old style a lot smaller than the ones used for building these days

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    This was the main door of The Blue Bell the windows are now sadly boarded up with chip board

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    Grass and weeds are now growing freely around The Blue Bells main door and on the pavement

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    The licence sign of The Blue Bell sadly now looking rather tired and old

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    The front of The Blue Bell you can see Holy Trinity Church clock tower on the right of the image

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    Notice the broken windows and the curtains hanging out they look vey old

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    There is even an original Sky mast next to the drain pipe

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    Me and my father Billy Bell often had a drink in The Blue Bell on an afternoon

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    The windows of the attic and the first floor are all broken now and the pub now looks a shadow of its former self

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    The Zion Street sign looks tattered and weary now is as if to say I have had enough

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    In this image you can see nearly all of the boarded up front of The Blue Bell

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    The chimney and the attic window can be seen clearly in this image and notice the seagull perched on the attic window

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    This image shows The Blue Bells rear extension in Moor Street not quite sure what the function of the extension was but it has been suggested that it could have been the pubs kitchen

    I dont know if The Blue Bell Hendon in its very long history used North East Breweries as one of its ales suppliers but one thing is certain the North Eastern Brewery LTD supplied many pubs with its products all over England

Paper Mill Hendon

The paper works were open by 1872 producing 200 tons of printing and writing paper per week. 18,000 tons of esparto grass was imported from Spain and North Africa per year. By 1902 the mill had become the largest paper mill in the north of England and had supplemented esparto grasas with wood pulp. Water for the mill was drawn from a well within the works and another in Grangetown. Within the complex of buildings was a reservoir with further reservois were located to the south of the buildings. These were used to control the quality of the copius amounts of water needed for making paper and for power generation. In 1902 and still in 1915 William Aitken was the secretary of the works. He lived at Hendon Grange, a building to the south of the main complex, adjacent to the reservoirs. By 1940 Hendon Grange was used as offices. Hendon Grange was demolished in 2002-3. Numerous alterations were made to the site from 1974 onwards including a new boiler house, steel chimney (1979-1980) and reel store (1999-2000). In 1998 the reservoirs in the south-west corner of the site were filled in and converted to a car park. The paper works ceased production in 2005. The buildings at the northern end of the paper works were still in use in 2010 by the Edward Thompson Group who owned the paper works since 1

 
   
   

 Interesting Article Hendon Paper Works Co Limited - by Denis Linfoot

My father, Arthur L. Linfoot (1890-1977), worked at the Hendon Paper Works (HPW) for nearly 50 years: from 1907 or 1908 until his retirement in 1956. He was however on War service from July 1915, when he volunteered for the RAMC (see his daily Diary blog for the years 1914-18, www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk.) until May or June 1919; see the letter (below) dated 16.01.1919 from Mr Sandelands of HPW, regarding his post-War re-employment. My father went to HPW as a clerk, doing shorthand, typing, book-keeping and general duties, as recorded in his Diary; he became Company Secretary in 1931 or thereabouts, and was a Director from 1953 until shortly after the take-over by DomTar.

HPW was as Ms Larmour says founded in 1872; I remember the date and initials HPW in a roundel on the porch floor in the office building, which I believe had originally been the Manager’s house, near the Works entrance in Ocean Road. The factory area extended north from there, perhaps as far as Sea Beach Road, and from Commercial Road on the west towards the low cliffs (where there were piggeries.) The image on the 1907 card was apparently taken from this direction. At their north-east corner, HPW had a heavily-used rail connection from the docks, running through or east of the gas works; there was then very little road freight, either of raw materials or finished products. The two chimneys were indeed a landmark, as Ms Gomersall says; both were originally about 200ft. high, but one was shortened by some 20ft. early in the 20th century.

Up to WW2, HPW produced mainly medium-quality (ie not hand-made) writing-paper, from esparto grass as Ms Larmour says; this came from North Africa, sometimes on vessels chartered by the Company. During and immediately after WW2, however, much of the paper was made from waste paper and straw, which required much more boiling than esparto, and made poor-quality paper. After WW2, HPW became a big producer of duplicating paper (which had become a world-wide peace-time requisite), and used a lot of wood pulp from Scandinavia; HPW also tried producing coated wrapping papers for confectionery etc. – another new need - but this required expensive specialised machinery. Although the illustration on the Sunderland Site is captioned as a ‘printing machine’, it is actually a paper-making machine and I never heard of HPW doing any commercial printing. The work-force is quoted in the cutting about DomTar’s closure as about 400. My recollection, from the 1940s and ‘50s, puts it nearer 200-250, but perhaps it varied.

Paper-mills need a great deal of clean water (the fluid at the ‘wet end’ of a Foudrinière machine was about 2% cellulose fibre and 98% water, and the basic process of paper-making is to get rid of the water and leave a sheet of dried-out fibre of even thickness.) This why the small, older paper-mills, such as Ford and Fourstones, were often sited at river-sides. HPW was near the sea, but sea-water won’t do (desalination was not a practical proposition), so they got their fresh water from a pumping-station adjoining Leechmere Road.

The Company was not totally owned by the Davidson family, though no doubt they had large shareholdings; my father mentioned sending dividends to shareholders on the South Coast and elsewhere, the Directors undoubtedly had shareholdings, and I believe he had a few shares himself. But it was a private company, not quoted on the Stock Exchange, and the Articles did not permit share transactions without the consent of the Board. This probably helped the Company to operate in a financially conservative way, with fixed assets written off comparatively quickly, and without constant pressure to maximise returns on capital. This in turn may have helped in the decision not to close during the Depression in the early 1930s (the Ford Paper Mill, mentioned on the web-page, did of course have to close). My father used to say after WW2 that if the financial institutions had had access to the Company’s balance sheet and other data, there would have been a great scramble from the asset-strippers. The 

takeover by Dominion Tar, which Mr Cyril Smith mentions, was perhaps encouraged by HPW’s financial strength, but DomTar’s main motivation was actually to get access to the European Common Market; the delays in the UK’s accession, due originally to de Gaulle’s opposition, may have influenced DomTar’s eventual withdrawal, though the competition of much larger paper-mills in the UK, and of trees-to-paper mills in Scandinavia, would probably have been decisive anyway.

Regarding the Davidson family: Percy W. Davidson, who was a few months older than my father, came to HPW some time after WW1, from a Tyneside company which then or later merged into ICI. He came as Managing Director; I do not know whether he was also Chairman of the Board initially, but he was certainly Chairman & Managing Director when I knew the firm. The Davidsons lived in a big house (which may have been company-owned) in Grangetown, named ‘Sea View’. Percy’s son Ian was in his early 20s at the outbreak of WW2, and remained in post, effectively as his father’s deputy (I don’t know his exact title) at HPW as part of the war effort. Percy Davidson in the late 1940s wanted me to take over from my father and carry on the firm with his son after our respective fathers’ retirement. This partly explains my knowledge of the Works, but while I took an interest in my father’s work, I did not take up the suggestion.